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Wissenschafts- und Kunstzweige nach ÖFOS 2012 sind eine fachlich-inhaltlich definierte Kategorien für einzelne Forschungs- und Kustgebiete wie z.B. Mathematik oder Schauspiel und basieren auf den sogenannten „Fields of Science“, die von der OECD im Frascati-Manual, einem Handbuch zur statistischen Erfassung von Forschungsaktivitäten, festgelegt wurden, von der Statistik Austria 2012 an die österreichischen Bedürfnisse angepasst wurden, und vom Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Forschung im Rahmen der Wissensbilanzverordnung um sogenannte „Kunstzweige“ ergänzt wurden.
- 1 NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN
101 Mathematik; 102 Informatik; 103 Physik, Astronomie; 104 Chemie; 105 Geowissenschaften, Mineralogie; 106 Biologie; 107 Andere Naturwissenschaften.
- 2 TECHNISCHE WISSENSCHAFTEN
201 Bauwesen; 202 Elektrotechnik, Elektronik, Informationstechnik; 203 Maschinenbau; 204 Chemische Verfahrenstechnik; 205 Werkstofftechnik; 206 Medizintechnik; 207 Umweltingenieurwesen, Angewandte Geowissenschaften; 208 Umweltbiotechnologie; 209 Industrielle Biotechnologie; 210 Nanotechnologie; 211 Andere Technische Wissenschaften.
- 3 HUMANMEDIZIN, GESUNDHEITSWISSENSCHAFTEN
301 Medizinisch-theoretische Wissenschaften, Pharmazie; 302 Klinische Medizin; 303 Gesundheitswissenschaften; 304 Medizinische Biotechnologie; 305 Andere Humanmedizin, Gesundheitswissenschaften.
- 4 AGRARWISSENSCHAFTEN, VETERINÄRMEDIZIN
401 Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Fischerei; 402 Tierzucht, Tierproduktion; 403 Veterinärmedizin; 404 Agrarbiotechnologie, Lebensmittelbiotechnologie; 405 Andere Agrarwissenschaften.
- 5 SOZIALWISSENSCHAFTEN
501 Psychologie; 502 Wirtschaftswissenschaften; 503 Erziehungswissenschaften; 504 Soziologie; 505 Rechtswissenschaften; 506 Politikwissenschaften; 507 Humangeographie, Regionale Geographie, Raumplanung; 508 Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaften; 509 Andere Sozialwissenschaften.
- 6 GEISTESWISSENSCHAFTEN
601 Geschichte, Archäologie; 602 Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften; 603 Philosophie, Ethik, Religion; 604 Kunstwissenschaften; 605 Andere Geisteswissenschaften.
- 7 MUSIK
701 Musikleitung (Dirigieren); 702 Interpretation – vokal; 703 Interpretation – instrumental; 704 Jazz / Improvisation; 705 Computermusik; 706 Komposition; 707 Tonmeister; 708 Musiktherapie; 709 MUSIK: Pädagogik / Vermittlung.
- 8 BILDENDE/GESTALTENDE KUNST
801 Bildende Kunst; 802 Bühnengestaltung; 803 Design; 804 Architektur; 805 Konservierung und Restaurierung; 806 Mediengestaltung; 807 Sprachkunst; 808 Transdisziplinäre Kunst; 809 BILDENDE/GESTALTENDE KUNST: Pädagogik / Vermittlung.
- 9 DARSTELLENDE KUNST
901 Schauspiel; 902 Theaterregie / Musiktheaterregie; 903 Film und Fernsehen; 904 Tanz; 905 DARSTELLENDE KUNST: Pädagogik / Vermittlung.
Die Auswahlliste in enger Anlehnung an die Kategorisierung des europäischen Projekts MERIL (Mapping of European Research Infrastructure) und der DFG (Research Infrastructure Portals der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft) umfasst folgende 40 Forschungsinfrastrukturkategorien (mit jeweiliger Beschreibung in englischer Sprache):
- Wissenschaftliche und künstlerische Sammlungen (Scientific Collections):
Sets of often unique objects and items of different types collected usually to be exhibited. Collections normally include a collecting policy for new acquisitions, so only objects and items in certain categories and of a certain quality are accepted into the collection. Objects in a collection are normally catalogued, traditionally in a card index, but nowadays this is being replaced by computerized database also for physical collections. These types of RIs are particularly relevant for the humanities, which often deal with the study of unique artifacts, but they can be relevant for other domains, such as social sciences, life and environmental sciences.
- Künstlerische Medienzentren (Artistic Media
Künstlerische Großinfrastruktur, wie etwa Filminfrastruktur oder multimediale Anlagen, aber auch digitale Archive, Infrastruktur für Videoinstallationen oder Tonarchive etc.
- Forschungsarchive (Research
Accounting normally for organised sets of unpublished and almost always unique historical records, or the physical place they are located, archives contain primary source documents (texts, maps, pictures etc.) in physical but also increasingly digital form (e.g. text archives structured in databases) that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organisation's lifetime. In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. This makes archives RIs that are relevant particularly to the Humanities, chiefly to historians but also to many other Humanities researchers dealing with primary sources of various kinds. A scientific discipline called archival science, dedicated to the study and practice of organising, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives, has established itself within the Humanities (History, Archives, Literature and Text Archives).
- Digitale Archive und Repositorien (Data
Archives, Data Repositories and Collections):
Digital data archive is a centre of expertise in data acquisition, preservation, management, dissemination and promotion of an access to the national and international collections and repositories of digital data. These type of RIs are particularly acute to the social sciences, which often rely on the aggregation of longitudinal data, and to the humanities, which often rely on preservation, but they can be relevant for other domains, particularly, the life and environmental sciences and the medical sciences.
- Große Forschungsbibliografien (Large
Scale Research Bibliographies):
Large scale systematic list of books and other works such as journal articles, reference and access resources. They can be physical publications (i.e. bound volumes) or digital (indexes and catalogues usually in the form of databases). They can be generally divided into enumerative bibliography (also called reference or systematic), which results in an overview of publications in a particular category, and analytical, or critical, bibliography, which studies the production of research material (in the form of books as well as other formats, including recordings, motion pictures, videos, graphic objects, databases, CD-ROMs and websites). As a bibliography can be produced in any field, it could be considered a transversal category; however it is humanities research especially that has traditionally relied on such tools to systematise its fields of enquiry – spanning centuries of relevant publications for many humanities disciplines - and circumscribe its research domain.
- Telemedizin-Laboratorien und Technologien (Telemedicine
Laboratories and Technologies):
e-Health is an emerging concept relating to the use of networked digital ICTs (primarily the Internet) to facilitate the organisation & delivery of health care and services. It encompasses applications for providers and organisations (e.g. for storing, exchanging and using clinical or administrative data, or aiding evidence-based practice) and for citizens and patients (e.g. web-based health information, education, virtual consulting), as well as research applications of e-Health technologies.
- Seismische Beobachtungsstationen/Simulationslaboratorien (Seismic
Monitoring Stations and Simulation Laboratories):
Drilling platforms and sensor technologies deployed to collect solid earth data and material in support of solid earth research and management activities. This includes facilities that collect seismological data to be added to the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and made available to the scientific community.
- Atmosphärenforschungseinrichtungen (Atmospheric
meteorological stations (all physical parameters that can be observed); Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW); Airglow; Ionospheric stations (all sky cameras, ionospheric radar); brewers; lidars; chemical compositions, pollution and radionuclides facilities; This includes Atmospheric test chambers which are used to conduct controlled experiments for climate change research and atmosphere related problems.
- In situ Erd-Observatorien (in
situ Earth and Ocean Observatories):
Platforms and sensor technologies deployed in situ to collect environmental data (including physical, chemical and biological observations) in support of terrestrial environmental research and management activities. These facilities, including ecological habitat field stations, provide a base for trans-disciplinary research and training, with access to terrestrial field sites for survey and experimental opportunities and often supporting environmental observations and the collection of long-term time series data sets (a.o. on biodiversity).
- Erdbeobachtungssatelliten (Earth Observation
Including Optical-IR Earth Observation satellites and Radar Earth Observation satellites.
- Biomedizinische Bildgebung (Biomedical Imaging
Facilities equipped for visualisation, characterisation, and measurement of biological processes at the cellular and tissue levels in humans and other living systems.
- Bioinformatik-Einrichtungen (Bio-informatics Facilities):
Bioinformatics facilities generate knowledge through computer analysis of biological data. These can consist of the information stored in the genetic code, but also experimental results from various sources, patient statistics, and scientific literature. Research in bioinformatics includes method development for storage, retrieval, and analysis of the data. Bioinformatics is a rapidly developing branch of biology and is highly interdisciplinary, using techniques and concepts from informatics, statistics, mathematics, chemistry, biochemistry, physics, and linguistics. It has many practical applications in different areas of biology and medicine.
- Genomics-, Transcriptomics-, Proteomics, Metabolomics-Einrichtungen (Genomic, Transcriptomic,
Proteomics and Metabolomics Facilities):
Multiple sites ranging from single laboratory DNA sequencing and RNA transcript analysis facilities run by biologists for their own department's research to high-throughput facilities aimed at providing a sophisticated service for a broad community of biologists run by informaticians, biologists and engineers. Proteomics: physical chemistry developments for clinical and biological applications getting access to proteins network linked to the physiological and pathological stated of the cells. This includes nutrigenomics research.
- Biobanken einschließlich Samenbanken (Biobanks including Seed
Facilities for storage of collections of microorganisms, biological material and the associated data and information facilities for a population or a large subset of a population, maintained under controlled conditions (temperature, humidity, atmosphere, etc.). The biological resources, including microorganisms, human/animal cells, tissue, blood and DNA, seeds of crops, trees and wild plant species, are conserved for their genetic endowment. Databases established on these provide holistic information on each accession with scientific descriptors, ethno-botanical/ zoological/microbiological/medical knowledge, including for the purpose of establishing intellectual property rights and ownership over the biomaterial stored.
- Tierhaltungs-/-züchtungseinrichtungen (Animal facilities):
Facilities that provide husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research community, usually equipped with highly automated systems that provide the best possible conditions for animal reproduction and maintenance. The main activity is the reproduction and maintenance of animal stocks either of inbred strains or genetically engineered animals, such as transgenic and knockout mouse lines, or even chemically-induced mutants.
- Chemische Bibliotheken und Screening-Einrichtungen (Chemical Libraries and
Digital libraries related to chemistry as well as screening facilities.
- Zellkultur-Zentren (Cell Culture Facilities):
Facilities that are equipped to provide robust support for isolation and culture of a variety of cell lines (like mammalian and insect cell lines, mouse and human embryonic stem cells), including serum preparation, feeders, growth factors and mycoplasma testing, this may be on serum-based or serum-free media.
- Translationale Forschungszentren (Translational Research
Centers of Competence):
Translational Research Centres support the integration of evidence based medicine, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimising patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. This is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.
- Klinische Forschungszentren (Clinical Research Centers):
Facilities that support patient-oriented research, involving a particular person or group of people or uses materials from humans. This research can include: Studies of mechanisms of human disease; Studies of therapies or interventions for disease; Clinical trials; Studies to develop new technology related to disease.
- Strukturbiologische Einrichtungen (Structural Biology
Facilities equipped for visualisation, characterisation, and measurement of biological processes at the molecular level in humans and other living systems. Main technologies include protein crystallisation, X-ray diffraction, mass spectrometry, DSC.
- Agrarforschung-, Forstwissenschaften- und Pflanzenzüchtung-Zentren (Agronomy, Forestry and
Plant Breeding Centres):
Facilities that enable open field and forest experiments to test the impact of management practices and of environmental conditions on soil, crop, and primary production. These include plants and trees ex-situ collections, experimental facilities for controlled crosses and propagation, and population genetics field testing. The facilities are relevant for Biological- and Environmental Sciences.
- Systembiologie-Einrichtungen (Systems
Biology/Computational Biology Facilities):
Laboratories that combine all relevant scientific disciplines and the know-how to integrate experimental data with computational and theoretical approaches with the aim of targeting, understanding and engineering pathways, cells, organs and complete organisms.
- Optische Strahlungsquellen (Intense Light Sources):
All facilities that provide access to intense light radiation sources as used for lasers, synchrotrons, Free Electron Lasers. The facilities are relevant to the scientific domains of Physics, Chemistry, Bio-Medical Sciences, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Humanities & Arts, Information Science & Technology; Laser Sources for materials synthesis laboratories; Laser Sources for spectroscopy laboratories; Synchrotron Light Sources and X-Ray Diffraction Facilities.
- Neutronenquellen (Intense Neutron Sources):
Accelerator-based neutron source facility that provides the intense pulsed neutron beam.
- Physik unter extremen Bedingungen (Extreme Conditions
All facilities where materials are studied under extreme physical conditions as in High Magnetic Field Laboratories, High Pressure Laboratories, Low Temperature Laboratories, High Radiation Facilities, Microgravity platforms.
- Analytik Gerätezentren (Analytical Facilities):
All facilities where analytical tools are used that are based on one of the following probes or methods: electrons, photons, neutrons, radio frequency, NMR, or analytical chemistry. It does include Surface Science Laboratories dedicated to analysis and characterization of surface and interface phenomena. Different users would come from the scientific domains Chemistry, Earth science, Bio-Medical (including forensic) science and different sensativities (Analytical Chemistry, electron microscopy laboratories); NMR facilities; surface science laboratories; x-ray diffraction; Electron Microscopy Laboratories, aspects in life sciences, earth, forensics; Surface Science Laboratories.
- Materialsynthese- und -test-Einrichtungen (Materials Synthesis and
All single or multi sited facilities run by engineers and materials scientists to process or test materials with regard to predefined specifications. It includes testing and processing equipment, structural and properties characterization instruments. The facilities are relevant to the scientific domains: Engineering, Materials Sciences, Physics, Chemistry.
- Verfahrenstechnische Versuchsanlagen (Pilot Plants for Process
Plants where processes in biological or chemical systems, including bioenergy/biorefinery research and food processing research, are tested on a pilot level scale. (Biology, Chemistry).
- Hochenergie-Physik-Einrichtungen (High Energy Physics
High Energy Physics Facilities include accelerators, colliders, targets, light sources and detectors of high energy particles through electrostatic or oscillating fields accelerating particles to speeds sufficient to cause nuclear and particle reactions.
- Kernphysik Einrichtungen (Nuclear Physics
Nuclear Physics facilities include accelerators, colliders, targets and detectors to study the atomic nucleus, the nuclear matter including its fusion and fission. The facilities can be classified according to their objects of study (hadrons, nuclei, applications), the probes that are used to investigate them (lepton/ photon or hadron/heavy ion beams), or simply by the size of the facility and the type of reactions involved in the various nuclear processes.
- Detektoren und Observatorien Astroteilchen und Neutrinos (Astro-Particles and
neutrinos detectors and observatories):
Range of detectors/observatories, using interactions in water or ice for detecting astrophysical neutrinos, interactions in liquid noble gases or solids for searching for dark matter particles, and light emission in the atmosphere for the detection of gamma rays from astrophysical sources.
- Gravitationswellen-Detektoren und Observatorien (Gravitational wave
detectors and Observatories):
Instruments using laser interferometry between freely hung test masses up to several km apart in vacuum. The lengths of two perpendicular arms, defined by the test masses, are compared and fluctuations in the arm length differences are recorded and analysed for potential GW signals. (Links to earth observation).
- Teleskope (Telescopes):
Includes Ground-based telescopes with (1) optical and/or near infrared telescopes, interferometers or (2) reflector telescopes with mirrors of different diameters, operating at radio frequencies, or infrared and/or optical wavelengths and (3) Space-borne telescopes orbiting the earth including a wide range of wavelengths, from gamma-rays to the radio.
- Elektrotechnik- und Optik-Zentren (Electrical and Optical
Single or multi-sited facilities that offer scientists and engineers access to devices for handling light, utilizing properties of light, and detecting light or access to infrastructure for research and development in the fields of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. These infrastructures may either broadly deal with electrical or electronic engineering, or be focused specifically on some of the numerous subtopics, like electronics, electric power, telecommunications, control systems, or other.
- Mechanik, Maschinenbau-Einrichtungen (Mechanical Engineering Facilities):
Facilities dedicated to manufacturing, assembly and testing of components and systems offering services related to control, integration and realization of products and processes including modeling and simulation tools. Processing technology, road-transport vehicle development and testing are included.
- Energieforschung (nicht nuclear) (Energy Engineering
combustion, solar, wind, production & distribution, includes, Combustion Test Facilities and Associated Technologies.
- Mikro- und Nanotechnologie-Zentren (Micro- and Nanotechnology
Micro and Nanotechnology facilities deals with the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale and microscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 1000 nanometers, involving imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.
- Luft- und Raumfahrtseinrichtungen (Aerospace and Aerodynamics
Single sited facilities providing a controlled wind stream in which objects (aircrafts, vehicles, buildings) are placed in order to measure their aerodynamic properties, using for instance lasers and/or simulate an operation and control during flight/ drive; includes wind tunnels.
- Hochleistungs-Rechner, Rechenzentren (High Performance Computing,
Single-sited facilities with a centralised control that enable high performance computing through supercomputers. These are relevant to all scientific domains.
- Mathematik-Zentren (Mathematics Centres of
Mathematics centers of competence develop mathematical models for applications in all sciences and engineering, including social sciences, and medicine. They analyse the models, develop and implement algorithms for the simulation of the models as well as for the optimization and control of the involved processes. They provide transversal competences, which allows to transfer concepts and methods from one specific science to another and they also provide consulting concerning the use of methods and their implementation for specific applications. When needed, they generate the basic mathematical theory that is needed to perform the described tasks. (Mathematical modeling; Numerical and statistical simulation; Control theory; Optimization; Mathematical algorithm repository).
- Sonstige Forschungsinfrastrukturkategorie: Jegliche „Sonstige Forschungsinfrastruktur“, die für Forschung bzw. Entwicklung und Erschließung der Künste genutzt und keiner anderen Kategorie zugeordnet werden kann.