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For the documentation and identification of material compositions of artworks non-destructive investigation methods are preferred for obvious reasons, which allow material analysis without sampling or modifying the investigated objects. Miniaturization in recent years in the field of equipment and computer technology also allows a non-invasive determination of the material composition, e.g. a material analysis directly in collections or archaeological sites to avoid transport or climate change for the art and cultural history works. For this purpose, the methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis (RFA) and UV-Vis, infrared and Raman spectroscopy are used in the institute.
Priv.-Doz. DI Dr.techn. Rita Wiesinger
Non-invasive material analysis, i.e. a determination of the chemical composition directly in collections or at archaeological sites in order to avoid transport or climate changes for art and cultural history works.
Methods & Expertise for Research Infrastructure
- TIDAS MSP400 microscope spectrometer (J&M Analytik AG, Germany)
Optical fiber coupling to Axioplan 2 microscope for reflection and transmission measurement of micro samples (Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Germany)
Fiber-optic probe for reflection measurements designed and built at the Institute of Science and Technology in Art.
- SpectroEye handheld spectrophotometer for color measurements (X-Rite GmbH, Switzerland)
- Spektrum 2000 coupled with microscope i-Series, 1 DTGS and 2 MCT detectors (Perkin Elmer, Germany). It can be used in reflection, transmission and in combination with IRRAS, QCM and weathering cell (self-constructed).
- ALPHA with transmission and reflection module, µ-ATR (Diamond crystal), DTGS detector (BRUKER Optik GmbH, Germany)
- LUMOS with integrated microscope, works in reflection and ATR (Germanium crystal) mode, MCT detector (BRUKER Optik GmbH, Germany)
- Portable confocal Raman, EZRAMAN-L-DUAL wavelength analyzer (Enwave Optronics, USA), equipped with two different lasers: 785 nm/350mW and 532 nm/50mW, fiber optics, integrated microscope with 1.3 Mpixel camera, in-Line LED illumination, Leica objectives, and Peltier cooled CCD detector (-60 °C).
- LabRAM ARAMIS (HORIBA Jobin Yvon GmbH, Germany) coupled with BXFM microscope (Olympus, Japan), three different lasers: 633 nm/17 mW, 532 nm/50 mW, 785 nm/80 mW, and CCD detector (1024x256, Peltier cooled -70 °C) in the backscattered configuration.
XRF (X-ray Fluorescence)
- pXRF: a self-built XRF system, developed at our institute for the use in the field of arts, with a small spot size of the beam: 1 mm, Rh-tube max. voltage 50 kV.
- Spectro xSort (Spectro Analytical Systems, Germany): handheld instrument, spot size of the beam = 7 mm, Ag-tube max. voltage 40 kV. www.spectro.com
- Elio (XGLab, Italy): a handheld instrument specially designed for the analysis of art and archaeological objects, a spot size of the beam: 1 mm, Rh-tube with max. power of 4 W, max. voltage 50 kV. www.xglab.it
-GC/MS QP2010 Plus (Shimadzu, Japan) combined with pyrolyzer PY-2010iD (Frontier Lab, Japan)
Small samples (mg) are required for that type of analysis - mainly organic compounds.
Institut für Naturwissenschaften und Technologie in der Kunst
2) Raman Spectroscopy for the Material Analysis of Medieval Manuscripts. 2018. Cappa, B. Fruehmann, M. Schreiner: Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials for Diagnostic, Conservation, and Restoration of Cultural Heritage 127–148.
3) Multianalytical Approach for the Analysis of the Codices Millenarius Maior and Millenarius Minor in Kremsmuenster Abbey.. 2018. B. Frühmann, F. Cappa, W. Vetter, M. Schreiner: Heritage Science 6:10 and 6:34.
4) Spectroscopic methods for the identification and photostability study of red synthetic organic pigments in alkyd and acrylic paints. 2018. Marta Anghelone, Valentin Stoytschew, Dubravka Jembrih-Simbürger, Manfred Schreiner: Microchemical Journal 139 (2018) 155-163.
4) Vietnamese Lacquer in Europe – Comprehensive Multi-Analytical Investigations on the Panel Paintings “The Return of the Hunters” of Jean Dunand. 2019. V. Pintus, A. J. Baragona, K. Wieland, M. Schilling, S. Miklin-Kniefacz, C. Haisch, M. Schreiner: Scientific Reports - Nature
5) Azurite in medieval illuminated manuscripts: a reflection-FTIR study concerning the characterization of binding media. 2019. W. Vetter, I. Latini, M. Schreiner: Heritage Science 7 Article number: 21.