University of Salzburg
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The magnet resonance imaging (MRI) or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), is a medical imaging technique, which creates through magnetic fields images of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. In the neuroradiology the MRT will be mainly used to gain detailed information about the brain, the cranial bone, the spine including the spinal disc, the spinal cord and the periphery nerves. Soft tissues like the brain and inner organs will be reflected on the MRT picture especially well differentiated and rich in contrast, so that details of even millimeter size are still visible.
The Siemens Magnetom Prisma is currently one of the most modern 3,0 Tesla Magnetresonanztomographen. The device contains a gradient strength of 80mT/m with a minimum rise rate of 200mT/m as well as over 64 high frequency canals and the Tim-Technology. The device offers a wide field of application in the area of functional and structural imaging, but also special methods like the diffuse-weighted tractography, which is used, for example, in the planning of surgical procedures (further application fields, please see methods and expertise in the research infrastructure.
In the field of neuro science, active brain areas (mainly based on the blood oxygenation) are determined with a high spatial resolution and color pictured in a morphological 3-dimensional MRT scan. This is due to changes in the magnetic characteristics of the blood through the consumption of blood oxygen in active nerve cells (BOLD effect). By means of passive stimulation from the outside (visual, acoustic, or sensory) or active stimulation from the inside (conscious performance of movements or brainteasers), the activated brain areas can be determined and displayed in 3-dimensional manner.
Dr. Martin Kronbichler
Our facility focuses on the recording and evaluation of imaging measurements in the following areas:
a) functional imaging while performing various tasks, such as visual word recognition, reading, visual object recognition and theory of mind (thoughts about the mental states of other people),
b) Investigation of diverse populations of subjects with specific characteristics such as dyslexic subjects, vegetative state patients, disorders of consciousness, mental and neurological disorders (schizophrenia, pathological gambling addiction, anorexia nervosa,..), comparison of age groups (reading in children, cognitive performance in advanced age,..),
c) Advertising effectiveness analyses with regard to the activation differences in auditory/visual advertising
d) Combination of magnetic resonance imaging with other methods, including electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, eye movement measurements and hormone analysis
e) pre-surgical examinations of patients using structural and functional imaging.
Methods & Expertise for Research Infrastructure
The Siemens Magnetom Prisma 3 Tesla device is used to perform functional and structural MRI examinations with psychological or neurocognitive aims. This process, for example, examines which parts of the brain are active in certain tasks (e.g., reading, judging image material) to conclude about the underlying cognitive processes.
The magnetic resonance tomograph provides a flexible scanning width, which ranges from small measuring fields (e.g. within the brain) to whole-body images.
A special method in magnetic resonance tomography makes it possible to measure the diffusion movement of water molecules in the body or brain tissue. The so called Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive method that allows conclusions on the microstructural characteristics of the brain. DTI can, for example, be used to evaluate changes in the diffusion of water molecules into the white substance of the human brain (e.g. caused through training).
Further fields of application are, for example, arterial spin-labeling and perfusion-MRI, etc.
Allocation to Core Facility
Linguistic Department, University of Salzburg
Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg
Einfluss hormoneller Verhütung auf Gehirn und Verhalten
Investigating phenotypes of choice using comutational fMRI
Many neighbors are not silent.fMRI evidence for global lexical activity in visual word recognition
Braun M., Jacobs A. M., Richlan F., Hawelka S., Hutzler F. & Kronbichler M
Frontiers in human neuroscience, 9.
Intrinsic functional connectivity differentiates minimally conscious from unresponsive patients
Demertzi A., Antonopoulos G., Heine L., Voss H. U., Crone J.S., de Los Angeles C. ... & Kronbichler M.
Brain, 138(9), 2619-2631
Differentiating Self-Projection from Simulation during Mentalizing: Evidence from fMRI
Schurz M., Kogler C., Scherndl T., Kronbichler M. & Kühberger A.
PloS one, 10(3), e0121405.
Impaired consciousness is linked to changes in effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network
Crone J. S., Schurz M., Höller Y., Bergmann J., Monti M., Schmid E. ... & Kronbichler M.
Neuroimage, 110, 101-109
Differential effects of androgenic and anti-androgenic progestins on fusiform and frontal gray matter volume and face recognition performance
Pletzer B., Kronbichler M. & Kerschbaum H.
Brain research, 1596, 108-115
Criticism hurts everybody, praise only some: Common and specific neural responses to approving and disapproving social-evaluative videos
Miedl S.F., Blechert J., Klackl J., Wiggert N., Reichenberger J., Derntl B. & Wilhelm F. H.
NeuroImage, 132, 138-147
Resting-state and task-based functional brain connectivity in developmental dyslexia
Schurz M., Wimmer H., Richlan F., Ludersdorfer P., Klackl J. & Kronbichler M.
Cerebral Cortex, bhu184
Fixation-related FMRI analysis in the domain of reading research: using self-paced eye movements as markers for hemodynamic brain responses during visual letter string processing
Richlan F., Gagl B., Hawelka S., Braun M., Schurz M., Kronbichler M. Hutzler F.
Cerebral Cortex, 24(10), 2647-2656
Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach
Tschernegg M., Crone J.S., Eigenberger T., Schwartenbeck P., Fauth-Bühler M., Lemènager T. ... & Kronbichler M.
Front Hum Neurosci, 7, 625
Existential neuroscience: self-esteem moderates neuronal responses to mortality-related stimuli.
Klackl J., Eva J. & Kronbichler M.
Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, nst167
Brain activation disturbance for target detection in patients with mild cognitive impairment: an fMRI study
Staffen W., Ladurner G., Höller Y., Bergmann J., Aichhorn M., Golaszewski S. & Kronbichler M.
Neurobiology of aging, 33(5), 1002-e1.
Do visual perspective tasks need theory of mind?
Aichhorn M., Perner J., Kronbichler M., Staffen W. & Ladurner G.
Neuroimage, 30(3), 1059-1068
The visual word form area and the frequency with which words are encountered: evidence from a parametric fMRI study
Kronbichler M., Hutzler F., Wimmer H., Mair A., Staffen W. & Ladurner G.
Neuroimage, 21(3), 946-953
Developmental dyslexia: gray matter abnormalities in the occipitotemporal cortex
Kronbichler M., Wimmer H., Staffen W., Hutzler F., Mair A. & Ladurner G.
Human brain mapping, 29(5)